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Sublethal effects of imidacloprid exposure on Spalangia endius, a pupal parasitoid of filth flies
Parasitoids and neonicotinoids can both suppress economically harmful filth fly populations. However, sublethal effects of neonicotinoids have not previously been studied for commonly used species of filth fly parasitoids. ...
Dissemination of imidacloprid through dairy cattle manure and its effect on the biological control agent, Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), and a filth fly host, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)
Filth flies, including house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), develop in animal manure. Adult house flies often are controlled with pesticides such as imidacloprid. How imidacloprid disseminates and persists ...