The effects of postactivation potentiation on subsequent 40-yard sprint performance in 16- to 23-year-old male athletes
Yates, Cody James
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Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is a physiological adaptation which enables the muscles' contractile properties to optimally perform. PAP is engendered through pre-performance conditioning activities (maximal or submaximal effort), such as a parallel back squat performed prior to a vertical jump test. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of postactivation potentiation on subsequent 40-yard sprint performance in 16- to 23-year-old male athletes. Specifically, the effects of hexagonal bar deadlifts (HBD) and weighted sled sprints (WSS) as PAP-loading protocols. METHODS: Thirty-one male subjects (age, 16.9 +/- 1.4 years; height, 180.2 +/- 6.2 cm; weight 83.4 +/- 19.2 kg) participated in this study. Testing sessions include two different visits, a control trial and a PAP-loading protocol trial, separated by ~48-hours, and counterbalanced, allowing each subject to act as their own control. The HBD (n = 8) group performed 4 sets of HBD as the PAP-loading protocol, using body weight (BW) to calculate estimated 1 repetition max (1RM). The WSS (n = 23) group performed 4 sets of WSS for 15-yards, using WSS loads of 25%, 50%, and 50% BW. Both PAP-loading protocols were followed by a 6-minute rest period, and concluded with two laser-timed 40-yard sprint performances. Control trials for both groups consisted of identical time intervals as the PAP trial, with basic active movement utilized instead of the PAP-loading protocol. RESULTS: The PAP trials had faster average 40-yard sprint times (5.35 +/- 0.44 s) compared to the control trials (5.39 +/- 0.39 s) for all subjects. The average difference for the PAP trials (-0.04 +/- 0.10) was statistically significant (p = 0.029). However, there was statistical significance (p = 0.035) between PAP-loading groups, with WSS being the only group to improve in sprint time for the PAP trial. The WSS group improved in 40-yard sprint time for the PAP trial (5.33 +/- 0.45 s) compared to the control trial (5.40 +/- 0.41 s) with a PAP difference of -0.06 +/- 0.10 s for 40-yard sprint time. CONCLUSION: The use of a PAP-loading protocol enhances 40-yard sprint performance, with the use of WSS proving to generate faster sprint times compared to the HBD.