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dc.contributor.authorKremer, A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorKing, B.H.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2019-11-25T04:09:48Z
dc.date.available2019-11-25T04:09:48Z
dc.date.issued2019
dc.identifier.citationKremer A, King BH. 2019. Decaying organic matter did not remove sublethal effect of imidacloprid on mating in Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of filth flies. Journal of Economic Entomology 112:2502-2506 .en_US
dc.identifier.otherdoi:10.1093/jee/toz156
dc.identifier.urihttps://commons.lib.niu.edu/handle/10843/20579
dc.description.abstractBoth the parasitoid wasp Spalangia endius Walker and the insecticide imidacloprid are used to control house flies. A recent study found that negative sublethal effects of imidacloprid on killing flies and on offspring production by this parasitoid wasp are eliminated when females have the opportunity to crawl through decaying matter. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the presence of decaying matter reduces the amount of pesticide on their bodies. This study examined whether this was also true for sublethal effects on mating. S. endius were exposed to a realistic concentration of imidacloprid that induces very low mortality. Then, individual parasitoids were allowed to burrow through decaying organic matter or not, followed by mating tests in the absence of decaying matter. Even after 24 h with the decaying matter, copulation for both males and females that had previously been exposed to imidacloprid was delayed compared with no-pesticide controls. Furthermore, for pesticide-exposed males, subsequently burrowing through media made copulation even more delayed than if they were not exposed to media. For pesticide-exposed females, subsequently burrowing through media neither increased or decreased the negative effect of the pesticide exposure. Together with other studies, these results reinforce that use of S. endius and use of imidacloprid are incompatible, even at much lower than recommended concentration, unless application is sufficiently separated in place and time.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherOxford University Pressen_US
dc.subjectdisseminationen_US
dc.subjectimidaclopriden_US
dc.subjectmanureen_US
dc.subjectbiological controlen_US
dc.subjectSpalangiaen_US
dc.subjectPteromalidaeen_US
dc.subjectfilth flyen_US
dc.subjectfilth fliesen_US
dc.subjectMuscaen_US
dc.subjectparasitoiden_US
dc.subjectparasitoid waspen_US
dc.subjectdairyen_US
dc.subjectsubstrateen_US
dc.subjectorganicen_US
dc.subjectorganic matteren_US
dc.subjectneonicotinoiden_US
dc.subjectbeneficial insecten_US
dc.subjectnontargeten_US
dc.subjectsublethalen_US
dc.subjectrealisticen_US
dc.subjectdegradationen_US
dc.subjectmatingen_US
dc.titleDecaying organic matter did not remove sublethal effect of imidacloprid on mating in Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a parasitoid of filth fliesen_US
dc.type.genreArticleen_US
dc.typeTexten_US
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Biological Sciencesen_US


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