Wear of tools used in sheet metal stamping
Ortega-Perea, Rafael David
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Stamping is an operation that is widely used in the manufacturing industry to produce products in high volume and in a continuous cycle. This operation can be performed by pressing and drawing. The process of sheet metal stamping has four components listed as follow: punch, blank holder, sheet metal blank, and die cavity. The purpose of a punch is to press the sheet metal blank, with a downward force, to stretch the material into the die cavity. The die cavity is fixed while the sheet metal blank is held down by the blank holder to properly stamp the sheet to the desire geometric shape. During this operation, the die cavity is subjected to high mechanical and tribological conditions due to the occurring sliding and high contact pressure between the sheet metal blank and the die cavity itself. These conditions then lead to surface wear in the die due to the continuous use over time and ultimately to production failures caused by wear (e.g. tearing, cracking, loose metal, earing, and wrinkling). Due to the high expense of the die, considerable efforts have been put into increasing the life time of this component and to predict the life span before wear occurs. These studies will be used to accurately predict when the die cavity will fail and would need to be replaced before producing any to minimal production failures. By having to accurately keep track of wear, the stamping industry will continue to produce high volumes and save time and money of the failures caused by wear.