Coping styles, locus of attribution, and smoking behavior
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The present studies Investigated the utility of conceptualizing client variables and therapy types according to a schema proposed by P. Brickman, V.C. Rabinowitz, J. Karuza, D. Coates, E. Cohn, and L. Kidder in 1982. These investigators proposed that both clients and therapy orientations be categorized by assessing perceived causal attribution as well as perceived attribution of responsibility for solution to a problem, along an internal-external dimension. Theoretically, clients will prefer and benefit most from therapy types consistent with their own styles. In Experiment I, two scales were developed to assess the client variables of causal attribution and solution attribution, using cigarette smoking as the domain of study. Potential items, solicited from smokers (N=14), were rated by judges according to internality/externality. Two five—point Likert scales were devised, a Cause of Smoking Questionnaire (CSQ) and a Solution to Smoking Questionnaire (SSQ), and were administered to subjects identifying themselves as past and/or present smokers (N=177). Based on these data, the scales were modified by deleting items demonstrating poor item-total correlations, poor loadings on major factors, or detracting from internal consistency. This resulted in two 12-item scales. Experiment II investigated the hypothesis that potential clients would prefer therapies consistent with their own models. Subjects (N=133) each rated one advertisement describing a smoking clinic. Ratings of favorability were subjected to a 2(Subject Score on CSQ) X 2(Subject Score on SSQ) X 2(Therapy Model's Causal Attribution) X 2(Therapy Model's Solution Attribution) analysis of variance. Results did not support the isomorphic relationship hypothesized (p>.05), but indicated that persons who internally attribute causal responsibility are more likely to prefer therapies which espouse internal-attribution for solutions (p<.05). Experiment III sampled smokers in the population at large (N=52). The Brickman et al. hypothesis that subjects' solution attribution would predict to the type of methods used in quitting smoking was investigated along with the hypothesis resulting from findings in Experiment II that subject causal attribution would be predictive of these variables. Findings supported the Brickman et al. hypothesis (p < .05).