The effect of ice massage on children's perception of pain during venipuncture
Oldenburg, Nancy L.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ice massage on children's perception of pain during venipuncture. Ice massage is defined as a form of cutaneous stimulation that has potential as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure. Eleven hospitalized children between the ages of 7 and 16 tested the following interventions: routine venipuncture without ice massage, venipuncture with ice massaged contralaterally to the site, and venipuncture with ice massaged proximally to the site. Perception of pain was obtained utilizing a 10-centimeter pain scale. Results indicated that there was significantly less pain reported when ice was applied to the contralateral site, versus routine venipuncture without ice massage. There were no significant differences when ice was applied proximal to the site and with no ice massage. There were also no significant differences when ice was applied contralaterally and when ice was applied proximal to the site.