Effects of swimming and land exercises versus swimming and water exercises on body composition of college students
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two different swimming and calisthenic exercise programs on body composition and swim performance. Subjects were 42 students (M = 19; F = 23; mean age = 20.8 yr). The experimental groups (Swim-Land [SL], n = 14; Swim-Water [SW], n = 16; Control [C], n = 12) participated in 35-40 min exercise sessions which consisted of a 5-10 min warm-up, 15-20 min of swimming, and 10-15 min of calisthenics three times per week for 8 weeks. The SL experimental group performed calisthenics on land with surgical tubing while the SW experimental group performed comparable calisthenics in the water. Subjects were pretested and posttested utilizing hydrostatic weighing to determine body density and calculate percent fat. Skinfold measures and the 12-min swim for distance were also measured. Results indicated a significant 20% increase in swim performance in both experimental groups (SL = 455 ± 144m to 553 ± 114m; SW = 465 ± 122m to 556 ± 123m; g < .05) but no difference between groups. Analysis of covariance revealed no significant differences in changes in percent body fat (SL pre = 22.2 ± 6.9%, SL post = 21.7 ± 7.0%; SW pre = 25.8 ± 7.5%, SW post = 24.7 ± 7.3%; C pre = 22.5 ± 8.1%, C post = 22.6 ± 7.9%) or sum of skinfolds (SL pre = 129.3 ± 43.8mm, SL post = 136.1 ± 44.5mm; SW pre = 147.5 ± 45.1mm, SW post = 148.9 ± 44.0mm; C pre = 139.8 ± 42.2mm, C post = 143.9 ± 43.4mm) between the experimental groups and the control group (n = 12). It was concluded that a combination of land or water calisthenics added to a swim program improved swim performance but did not change body composition.