The effects of association and dissociation on the rate of perceived exertion and the physiological variables of exercise
Ferris, Tracy M.
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This study investigated the influence of selected cognitive strategies on representative psychological and physiological responses to submaximal and maximal running in trained (TR) and untrained (UT) male runners. Nine TR (x̅ V̇O₂max = 66.62 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, p̲ < .05) and nine UT (x̅ V̇O₂max = 48.49 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, p̲ < .05) subjects participated in two randomly administered exercise tests utilizing association (A) and dissociation (D). The tests consisted of a 5-minute warm-up at 201 m/min at 0% grade for TR and 160 m/min for UT followed by a run at 80% V̇O₂max to volitional fatigue. A 2x2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed that Tr- A had similar V̇O₂ and RPE values to TR-D (x̅ = 40.77 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ ± 4.00 and 7.56 ± 2.19 vs. 40.30 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ ± 3.82 and 8.56 ± 2.51; p̲ > .05) and UT-A had similar V̇O₂ and RPE values to UT-D (35.64 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ ± 2.29 and 8.44 ± 1.59 vs. 35.09 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ ± 2.08 and 8.56 ± 1.51; p̲ > .05) during steady-state running. During runs to volitional fatigue, TR-A ran for a longer duration than TR-D (x̅ = 62.15 min ± 20.38 vs. 34.37 min ± 30.74; p̲ < .05), whereas UT-A and UT-D were not significantly different (x̅ = 35.84 min ± 16.66 vs. 29.68 min ± 8.14; p̲ > .05). Despite different durations within both groups, V̇O₂ and RPE were equal. TR-A had less blood lactate (LA) accumulation than TR-D (x̅ = 2.55 mmo1/1 ± 0.98 vs. 3.19 mmo1/1 ± 1.92; p̲ < .05), while UT-A had greater LA than UT-D (x̅ = 5.59 mmo1/1 ± 2.26 vs. 4.71 mmo1/1 ± 1.38; p̲ < .05). These results indicated that association had a positive effect on TR runners but either no or a detrimental effect on UT runners in terms of performance and the physiological response to performance. The cognitive strategies of association and dissociation did not affect the psychological perception of fatigue in either group.