Validity and objectivity of a rating scale for the overhead and forearm volleyball pass
Higgins, Kathleen L.
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The purpose of this study was to determine if a valid and objective rating scale could be developed which evaluated two volleyball skills: the overhead pass and the forearm pass. The rating scale was to be practical and easy to administer to students in a typical educational setting. Subjects were in a ninth-grade, coeducational physical education class at a rural high school in northern Illinois. They were videotaped as they performed three trials at each volleyball skill. The recorded performances were given to three raters and the researcher. The raters were required to score the second trial of each subject's performance. Reliability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient using Repeated Measures ANOVA. Results showed that for total scores, three out of four raters scored above .80 in the forearm pass and two out of four raters scored above .80 in the overhead pass. The objectivity of the instrument was determined by calculating intrarater coefficients using a 3x3 contingency table. Results demonstrated significant reliability coefficients at various focal points. The study revealed that these rating scales are a valid and reliable resource for evaluating motor performance as long as evaluators are properly trained at applying evaluation standards.