Interaction of exercise and a high-carbohydrate diet versus a high-monounsaturated-fat diet on the glucose and lipid metabolism of women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
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The purpose of this study was to compare a HCHO diet to a HMF diet, in combination with a daily one-hour low-intensity walking program, on the glycemic and lipidemic control in 10 women with NIDDM. The HMF diet (CHO, 30%; fat, 53%; protein, 17%) and exercise program and the HCHO diet (CHO, 64%; fat, 19%; protein, 17%) and exercise program were each performed for a period of seven days with a washout period of seven days between each treatment. Diets had the same amount of calories, simple carbohydrates, and fiber. Blood tests were administered to each subject, the first at the beginning of each experimental period and the second (Post-1) and third (Post-2) before and after the last exercise session of each experimental period, to determine glucose and lipid concentrations. The HMF treatment resulted in a significant reduction in glucose from baseline to Post-1 (P<0.04) and baseline to Post-2 (P<0.04) and a significant reduction of body weight from baseline to Post-1 (P=.008). The HCHO treatment resulted in a significant reduction of glucose from baseline to Post-2 (P<0.04). No significant changes occurred in lipid levels for either treatment. There were also no significant differences between treatments on the mean changes of glucose and lipids. Body weight, however, was significantly lower after the HMF experimental period (P= 0.002) than the HCHO treatment. Results of the study revealed clinical differences in the subjects’ metabolic responses to the two treatments. Glucose and triglycerides X were reduced 16.5% and 28.8% after the HMF treatment compared to 6.1% and 16.4% for the HCHO treatment. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were reduced 4.5% and 4.8% after the HMF treatment, in contrast to an elevation of 1.5 % and 8.4 % for the HCHO treatment. HDL-C increased by 5.6 % after the HMF treatment in contrast to a reduction of 3.9 % for the HCHO treatment. These preliminary findings suggest that a treatment of low-intensity aerobic exercise and a diet high in monounsaturated fats may have a better effect on glucose and lipid metabolism in women with NIDDM compared to a HCHO treatment.