Environmental impacts of golf course construction and maintenance on Carya Ovata (shagbark hickory) and soil properties
Stojanovic, Bobbi L.
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This research examined regeneration capacity of Cary a ovata in fragmented temperate deciduous oak-hickory woodlots within a golf course environment. Forest fragments were compared to a larger, more continuous track of forested land within the golf course environment. Comparisons were made between the two areas to determine possible effects of fragmentation and golf course maintenance practices. Vegetation and soil sampling was conducted in five forest fragments of varying size and three 100 m plots within the continuous forest. Seedling density and height were recorded in addition to distance of seedlings to the edge of the fragmented areas. Density, relative density, basal area, relative basal area, and dominance were calculated for mature species within the stand to allow comparison of the sampling areas. All forest fragments were located parallel to golf course fairways which receive various soil nutrient amendments to maintain favorable playing conditions. A germination trial was conducted to assess the effect of nutrient amendments on seedling growth and persistence. Soil analysis included pH, texture, bulk density, organic matter content, and cation exchange capacity in addition to nutrient concentrations. Soil analysis was utilized to determine if soil properties varied between forest fragments and the continuous forest and if variations were consistent with the established vegetation in each area.