Teaching phonological awareness to at-risk learners in kindergarten and first grade : an analysis of four training programs
Wanzek, Jeanne A.
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The content of four phonological awareness training programs was analyzed according to six principles of effective instructional design related to teaching students at-risk for reading failure. The four programs analyzed were selected because they are readily available and are grounded, at least in part, by research. All of the programs were comprehensive, but showed some differences in skill emphasis. Three of the programs also provided strong components in the areas of scaffolding, integration of skills, conspicuously taught strategies, and judicious review. However, large differences were found in the format of each program. Adaptations related to improving instruction for at-risk learners are presented for each program.